It’s very uneasy to get oriented in the immense space of tantric knowledge. Until now specialists can not give one exact answer about origin of texts and learning itself. But the task can be significantly simplified if we remember the utterance by Mark Dyczhkowski: “Tantra – this is that what is written in Tantras”. Therefore Svara learning is represented with the content of its texts. Usually commentarial literature calls this discipline as yoga, but actually Svara-Sastra is mostly devoted to different and multiple aspects of human’s activity – from connection with space bodies to predictions about results of combats. But this, basically, is Tantra – the attainment of sense and meaning in the very depth of prosiness. When the art of Svara is discussed, authors usually appeal to external respiration, connecting it with periods of activities of brain hemisphere and with biorhythms. This interconnection, obviously, exists, but based on the idea of Svara-Sastra itself about penetration of each other of all events and things in the world, it’s necessary to look at cycles and periods in person’s life more comprehensively. It’s obvious that natural and inseparably connected with them individual circadian (from lat. circa dies – “around day and night”) rhythms are that carrying platform, where trivial, gender, social, cultural and religious characteristics are placed. Hundreds of physiological and biochemical body symptoms are under influence of circadial rhythms: body temperature, pressure, respiratory rhythm, puls etc. Human’s body has its own mechanism of time-keeping. It is the suprachiasmatic nucleus – accumulation approximately of 20000 neurones, located at the bottom of hypothalamus, over theintersection of ophthalmic nerve. Getting visual information, the nucleus “is attached” to the current time of day and at the necessary moment sends a signal to epyphise – the gland, producing melatonin, the hormone of dream. Based on such cooperation, periods of activity of brain hemispheres and connected with it nasal passages are built, creating a huge amount of individual combinations, expressed in actions, words and thoughts of individual. Biorhythms, usually tightly linked with Svara learning, deserve a separate word. This theory, set in Europe at the beginning of 20th century, states that since the moment of birth rhythms, defining physical, emotional and intellectual abilities at the present time, are launched. As a rule, these rhythms are depicted in form of three sinusoids and have the following periods: physical – 23 days, emotional – 28 days and intellectual – 33 days. Points of intersection of any of these axes are considered critical. But numerous strict checkings, done in 1970-1980s, found no proves of existence of these three rhythms, because: “It would look rather strange if these rhythms existed, not susceptible to influence of external periodical processes and internal genetic mechanisms” (I.Streltsov, “Unsleeping breguet”). And breathing, being the direct conductor of external and internal evolutionary cycles, takes an active part in psychosomatic life – regulation of blood circulation, support of skeletal motility, adaptation to pressure, verbal communication, different psychiatric experiences and many others.
Tracking very closely details of connections between external and internal world, ancient observers tried to establish some kind of equation, with help of which it would become possible to oppose the general determinism of human’s life. These attempts remained in special texts, the most famous of which are “Svara Chintamani” (SC) and “Siva svarodaya”. They look much alike in their structure and contain sections of ontological, mystical, physicophylosophical knowledge in combination with methodology and systematization. Literary style is traditional and represented with distinctive dialogue between Siva and Parvati, where Siva is an instructing character and his spouse is an interrogating one. Semantic hint of the name of the first treatise is interesting – “chintamani” means not just making all wishes come true gem, but philosophical stone itself, lapisphilosophorum, letting discover all secrets of the world. This significantly simplifies epistemological filling of treatise and sacralize svara as such. The first slokas give spiritual meaning and significance where Ishvara is praised as primary, ultimative reality, penetrating all levels of Being with itself. This way the author gives definite direction to his work, supposing that the idea about identity of sacred and profane won’t lose its actuality. In support of this ordinary, usual in feeling breathing, is expanded by Siva to the scales of the Universe and is defined as a reason of 5 elements (tattvas) and time, making all things in the world, including human mind and body. Thus, there is nothing impossible for that who is able to manage svaras. But it’s important to understand that solving of utilitarian problems without striving to comprehension of Ishvara makes a slave even out of the most masterful expert. Human’s body with its sensory system in “Svara chintamani” is treated as direct manifestation Mahabhut (primary elements) in different combinations of their quinary qualities: “there are 5 divisions in every of 5 bhutas and there exist twenty-five kinds of svaras”. Consequently, each of body tissues and even psychophisical condition – this is manifestation of some primary element: “hair, skin, flesh, bones – this is Ground; semen, urine, feces, sleep, tiredness – Water; hunger, thirst, heat – Fire; bending or stretching of limbs, running, jumps, suppression of urinating and defecation – Air; anger, timidity, fear, love – Space.
It’s necessary to realize that we mustn’t become strictly attached to such qualifications, because they relate to the sphere of physicophilosophical perception, the main task of which is to answer existential questions about Substance, Matter, Space, Time, Laws of nature etc. When categories of strictly empirical, existential and spiritual perception get mixed, they become obstacles for each other, creating infinite amount of misperception.
In “Svara Chintamani” is described a delicate aspect of formity, introduced in the system of energy channels – nadi. This structure assimilates to the spokes of the wheel, coming out of the centre , located in the area of navel. There are totally 72 nadis: “Ten are going upwards, and ten more – downwards. Those, going upwards, are considered more important… and are divided into 24 nadis more from each pair, and Ajna chakra is shining iridescently in their central connection. That nadi, going upwards to Ajna on the left, is called Ida, that one, going on the right, is Pingala. That one, going in the middle, is named Sushumna”. Describing the channel system, author insists on its permanence: “Names… of channels in different texts may vary, but their location in the body is always the same”. Also, great attention in the energy system is devoted to winds or pranas, which, due to their qualities, make diversity of bodily functions:
“Prana – is presented in the area of mouth, nose and heart. It is thereasin of voice origin, inhale, exhale.
Apana-vayu is directed to anus, genitals, buttocks, knee joints, belly, testes, hips, feet.
Vyana-vayu…connects to Prana and Apana, regulates their right movement.
Samana-vayu is the provider of warmth, bodily juices, food and water for every of 7200 nadis (obviously, the processes of anabolism are meant. Although, it’s wrong to lead local pranas just to psysiological functions).
Udana-vayu, concentrated in the throat, is the reason of movements of hands and legs.
These vayus act in nadis, causing the movement”.
The author of the treatise is very consistent in his narration – starting the movement from fundamental, permanent basis, he ingeniously broadens the measures of the world described by him, not losing the connection to its source – the great Maheswara, appearing himself as inhale and exhale of the Universe, SoHam. But any cyclicism can not appear itself otherwise than in space-time. And for perception of one object, it’s necessary to understand the other. Time phenomenon has always been a great mystery, pushing its exploreres to make theories of all sorts. “Svara Chintamani” divides all continuum into internal time, developing in body-mind via inhaling, exhaling and general, external time, floating in the space of the Universe. As units of measurement “Svara Chintamani” offers a wide system of measurements: Prana – is the time, spent on one inhale and exhale; Phala equals to six pranas; Ghati consists of six phalas; Yama is made by seven and a half ghatis. Day and night of external time equal 60 ghatis and are even with the internal year. So, due to the obvious connection between internal and external, time can flow with different speed in different spaces. That’s why “Svara Chintamani” isn’t isolated only on monologic time treatment, but widens it to so-called three worlds – the area of spirits and ancestors, the area of people and the area of celestials – devas, where time flows differently. People’s year consists of 360 days, 12 months, 6 seasons, 2 halves of the year and 12 signs of zodiac. Separate category is made by universal cycles, introduced in incredible figures, very difficult for understanding: “There is no point in talking about it, because the more time lengths are described, the more fear appears”. But all these compilations harmoniously fit in “Svara Chintamani” principal idea of continuous interrelation between small and big, celestial and wordly. Particular importance in the context of main idea of svara science is given to two halves of the year cycle, which can be brought to any periodic event of the comprehensible for us world (from the period of rotating the Moon aroung the Earth to breathing and Krebs cycle), connected with summer and winter solstice – Uttarayana and Daksinayana. Uprising cycle – Uttarayana – comes from the point of summer solstice in the sign of Cancer, when the sun goes to the north and corresponds to the Lunar (left) svara, descending – Daksinayana – from the point of winter solstice in the sign of Capricorn, is characterized with the sun’s movement to the south and corresponds to the solar (right) svara. In Hindu tradition the uprising phase correlates with Deva-yana (“the way of gods”) and descending – with Pitri-yana (“the way of ancestors”). Bhagavad-gita, 8: 23-26: “. O, the best of Bharats, now I describe you the moments of time, in which those, striving to the One, leave this world to return or not to return. 24. Those, who perceived the Highest Brahman, reach Him, leaving this world while predominance of influence of fire, in light time, in propitious moment of day, during the fortnight of increscent Moon or those six months, when the Sun wanders in the North. 25. That, who is leaving this world into the fog, night, during 2 weeks, when the Moon is at the waning stage or during 6 months, when the Sun moves to the South, reaches the sphere of the Moon, but returns again. 26. There are two ways for leaving this world: one is in the light and another is in the dark. If a person leaves in the light, he doesn’t return any more, but if he leaves in the dark, he will return again”. The most initial points of Uttarayana and Daksinayana are interpreted as special “gates”, opening access to the bright world of gds and the vale of suffering – the worldof ancestors. The summer solstice – this is “gate of people”, the winter solstice – is “gate of gods”. It’s remarkable, that “gate” of summer solstice can fulfill two functions – exit and entrance. It is connected with the theory of reincarnation and karma – if manifestated existence during time of its cycle was not transcended, it inevitably “enters gate of people”, but already as completely another individuation. “Gate of gods” can be entered only by one who knew his true essence of consciousness. And only very rarely, once for whole era, the saviour-avatar comes out of this gate, bringing his holy Gospel to the world of manifestations. Nearness and farness of the Sun during different solstices – are definitely archetypal characters – summer shiner in its peak point burns to ashes, like hellfire, winter one in its farness brings coolness and the light. It’s important to take these two aspects into account in your internal universe, practising different methods on awaking “solar” activity. One should understand that everything said about Daksinayana and Uttarayana represents particular manifestations of two deeper metaphysical processes known as Pravritti and Nivritti. The first of the is manifestation, the second one is involution. Only with the full perception of both , comprehension of non-duality as a condition of complete absolution is possible. On the level of individual energy structure this is expressed in “opening” of medial channel – Sushumna. Needless to say that direct instructions concerning periods, cycles and certain dates fulfill auxiliary function. With their help the initial reluctance of empirical perception is overcome, making conditions for realization of really mystical comprehensions. One doesn’t need to be a visionary to understand quite simple truth – for ascent on Deva-loku it’s not enough just to die during the fortnight of increscent moon.
“Svara Chintamani” gives an important place to the practice of pranayama – a very efficient mean for perception of the world. Three stages of breathing cycle – inhale, breathholding, exhale – excellently fit the “great triada” of gunas, the Sun, the Moon and the Fire (Pingala, Ida and Sushumna), manidestations (srishti), support (sthiti), solution (samhara), Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra. Practise pranayama – and the whole world will be in your hands! But this must be done correctly: “Yogis should understand the necessity of right inhales, exhales and breathholdings… In your inhales and exhales one should be careful”. Instructions concerning adjusted, delicate approach to pranayama are in all treatises, which one way or another relate to this topic. Firstly, this is essentially important for psychosomatic health, because controlled breathing features a deeply peenetrating instrument and can transform into deadly weapon being used wrongly. Secondly, with the wrong interpretation of the definition itself, it’s possible to make serious categorical mistakes with further complete mutilation. There is no secret that most practitioners understand pranayama as some rodeo, trying to “temperate” Prana. And pranayama is first of all a method, with help of which, measures between subjective and objective, “I” and “ego” firtsly are thinning and then disappear. As a point of fact, right pranayama – this is the main key to svara perception by means of obtaining a very high level of sensibility towards internal and external world. It’s necessary to understand that every breathing cycle is determined by infinite chain of evolutionary events from protein nubbles to certain individual with inherent only to him set of characteristics and features rather than by immediate need of body in gas mixture. Correspondingly, pranayama is the method, with help of which it’s possible to argue with general inertia of rotation of Sansara wheel. Obviously, this was meant by the author of “Svara Chintamani”: “Sins of previous births are deleted by Rechaka… With the right practice all troubles mentioned below (disasters, wars, deaths) can be predicted”.
Actually the technical part of pranayama, described in “Svara Chintamani”, differs from usual standards, that proves once again no adherence to principles of technocratic approach in practice. Along with that the author describes typical results of pranayama, distinguishing for all explanatory texts of such kind. Separately should be said about significant instrument of yogis – Yoga-danda: “Using Yoga-danda, letting sit constantly in Padmasana, pranayama should be done in accordance with own capacities”. This ingenuous appliance is an expression of very serious ambition – the necessity of exit beyond the measures of multiple overwhelming appointments, expressed in certain combination of condition of nasal passages, rather than is just appointed to support arm during japa or pranayama. Idea of Yoga-danda using lies in conscious changing of svara flows according to set targets, creating own world in such way, which is more free from fatal predeterminacy. The procedure itself of using yogic staff is, at first sight, very simple – it is fixed with its branched part in axillary region, restricting excursion of homonymous hemithorax during breathing. Correspondingly, the intensity of tidal volume decreases and the opposite svara starts to activate. But this happens by no means always and depends in many factors, for example, such as intensity of pressure on axillary region , ability of body to respond to such impact, stability of general rhythm of svaras and so on.
Trying to understand own life, to somehow harmonize course of its events (not speaking about complex way of yogic sadhana) very important is ability to define the main direction of movement, preceeding from honesty of our motivations. In that context not always asserted goals correspond to those ones being in the depth of subconscious, wishes, impulses. Such internal disunity creates incredibly puzzling situation around the personality itself, losing the rests of its entirety. In order to teat this vicious circle, incredible efforts are necessary and also some very significant ranging mark, allowing to see horizons of own internal events. If we learn to follow the general as a way of integration, than details will be bright, clear and serve as ingenious means for further advance. If on the contary, then on top of everything contradictory internal space will turn into complete neurotic chaos, to get out of which will be mpossible. In this context, the biggest importance belongs to slokas “Svara Chintamani” of total ordering, permitting to draw at least general outlines of internal world in its cinterconnection with external world: “Routine deals, getting messages, travelling, wars, sacramental rites, homas, ypanayanas, making a fortune, housewarming,… farming, setting deity statue, marriage, catartic rites, … yogic sadhana, teaching, preparation of drugs, extraction of venoms, religious preachings … have to be done, when Lunar nadi is open.
Beginning of edcation, shaving, … trade, studying of Scriptures, debates, gambling, arguings, stealing, riding, … writing of letters and documents, music learning, fulfilling of mantra and yantra, starting of fights, beginning of treatment, sex, sales, bathing, gifting… have to be done, when Solar nadi is active”. Great importance “Svara Chintamani” gives to right alternation of svara activity – they in turn change each other in every 60-90 minutes, in accordance with periods of activity of cerebral hemispheres. If a failure happens in this rhythm (for instance, activity of svara remains for several days), then there are good reasons to worry. In this context, the text offers special tests, ,etting define designated life expectancy: “At the beginning of the year yogin has to examine svara during first 5 days. If from the start of of sign Aries (April, 4th) breathing flows through the right nostril, he will live only six years. At the beginning of month Jyeshtha in sign of Gemini (June, 15th), if during 5 days in a row breathing flows through the right nostril, he will live only 9 years” – and so on. What cocerns Lunar nadi, then: ” If… Lunar nadi is constantly active during five days, during days of beginning of other signs of zodiac (Taurus – May, 15th, Cancer – June, 17th, Virgo – September, 17th, Scorpio – November, 17th, Capricorn – January, 15th, Pisces – March, 15th), then undoubtedly happiness and success will be in all businesses”. Here again evidently is traced learning about Daksinayana and Uttarayana, expressed in svaras. On the whole, “Svara Chintamani” is quite fatalistic: “That one, who during the whole month feels the flow of breathing in time, not corresponding to rules of zodiac signs, will undoubtedly die by the evening of that same day”. To check such confirmations is extremely difficult and they unlikely introduce the main semantic context of this treatise.
“If svara is full, it’s a proof of opportuneness of opening the ball. The result will be got without the slightest obstacle”. All Svara-yoga can be referred to the last expression. That one, who is familiar with yoga-natha every day practice, knows that fullness of one or another svara defines, with which leg the first step will be made after waking-up at the starting day or stepping on asana. And the point here is, of course, not in the leg itself, but in the activity of one of the cerebral hemispheres, connected with receptors of corresponding sole and nasal passage. Synchronizing rhythms of his brain, yogi demonstrates readiness of acception (and later transcending) of any situation, which can only appear in the world of great triadas. But therewith internal readiness is accompanied by support of condition of naturalness of development of own conditions. Besides, in this context important are not the events themselves, but how continuously they are lit by the energy of yogic meditation. Exactly upon these conditions begin difficultly obtained pratyahara, vayragya and viveka. And by no means always time of yogic practices coincides with opennes of “right” nostril, as our breathing – is some kind of “karma wind”, determined by infinity of different reasons. And ingenuity of yogi lies in ability to turn every event of his life into sadhana and to reach necessary effects from practice even by the most unfavourable initial conditions. Besides, starting to learn interconnections of svaras, nadis, pranas, mahabhutas, naksatras and moreover all sorts of interpretations and predictions, it’s very useful to remember the statement by Gorakshanath: “Mind for people – is the reason as of connectedness, so of release. Being tied up to the objects, it enslaves, being free from objects – serves for release” (Amanaska-yoga, chapter 2, sloka 79). If hankering to knowing of future events is brought by typical human’s fears, one should keep in mind that with bigger part of our nature we are under total influence of determinism of rough shabhava. Time of our birth and death are imprinted on genetic level. Not, it’s not difficult to conclude a complete predeterminacy of everything, occuring in person’s life. And under free will is often meant eclecticity and indeterminism of motivational impulses. The accuracy of predictions is complicated by: “… human’s brain….is susceptible to the principle of ambiguity. Therefore, in human’s behaviour there is an element of accident, associated with quantum mechanics. True reason of impossibility to predict human’s behavior is that it’s too difficult. Brain contains around hundred million billion billion of particles. It’s too much for us to be able whenever to solve equations and predict how the brain will behave…” (S. Howking, “Black Holes and Baby Universes”). And with impossibilty to predict behavioral reactions, any technological method of modelling of coming events is absolutely excluded. But more likely is that key to solution of Svara-shastra lies not in its methods, but in something else, that makes possible the demonstartion of free will: “That one, who is devoted to God and Guru, who has good behaviour, clean mind, steady courage and joy, who is wise, experienced, has wide horizon and is well-educated, who is familiar with astronomic calculations, owns astrology and wisdom of Sastras, who has no anger – that person fits for Svara Sastra practice”.
Guru Yogi Adyanath Maharaj